Latest XML Interview Questions and answers 2018
XML is a language often preferred by the developers and some also prefer using it as an alternative to HTML as this language allows the developer to define their own elements. Today, the industry has a lot of demand for XML developers and thus if you are an XML aspirant make sure you nail all your XML interview questions to qualify for a job.
These XML Interview Questions cover different aspects of XML and may prove to be an important read:
Q1. Define XML?
Ans. XML (Extensible Markup Language), also known as document formatting language is used for creating web pages. HTML or the Hypertext markup language is not extensible which gives XML a great application because of its ability to define new elements. The language is used for the data storage and transport and has nothing to do with data display. In the case of HTML, the user tags are pre-defined but such is not the case with XML, therefore, users can create their own.
Q2. State the features of XML?
Ans. XML or the Extensible Markup Language has some amazing features that are easy when it comes to implementation and learning. Some of the remarkable ones are:
- The XML files require no editors, as they are text-only.
- When it comes to Syntax rules, XML has only a few of them.
- The language is known for being extensible which specifies the tags’ structural rules.
Q3. Define the basic XML rules?
Ans. There are certain rules that every XML developer has to follow such as:
- The root element is a must for XML
- The tags must be all closed
- The tags of XML are case-sensitive
- Proper nesting of tags
- There should be no space between tag names
- All the attributed values must be quoted
Q4. Define XML Schema?
Ans. To define a document made of XML, Schema is used. A schema has certain elements in it such as different Elements & attributes, the Specific child elements, and its order, and element data types
Q5. What is a well-formed XML document?
Ans. A document can be considered well-formed if it is in accordance with certain rules such as all tags must be closed and properly nested, check for tags’ case sensitivity, and closing empty tags by using a forward.
Q6. Why has XML been used for development?
Ans. There are several reasons for using XML for development such as:
- When websites are data-driven
- When e-commerce websites need data storage
- When data storage and transport is required on the Internet
- When there are flat files and the database
- Whenever dynamic content has to be generated by implementing different style sheets.
Q7. State the benefits of XML?
Ans. XML has several benefits to offer such as:
- The language is simple to implement and learn
- The programming can be done using a text editor
- The possibility of defining new tags due to extensibility
- Self – explanatory
- Has multiple data types
Q8. State the disadvantages of XML?
Ans. There are certain disadvantages too when it comes to XML. For instance, the markup does not allow any overlapping and without defining attributes and elements, XML is nothing more than just a text file.
Q9. Why should we go for XML editor instead of Notepad?
Ans. XML editors allow building an error-proof XML document which is then validated against either of the two i.e. Schema or DTD. There are several reasons to use XML editors because they can check both open and closed tags, they can validate against DTD and Schema. The editor can also check the color code on a syntax of XML.
Q10. Define Complex Element?
Ans. The element, which has attributes and supposedly other different elements, is known as complex elements. A complex element may contain empty elements, only text or both text and element etc.
Q11. Define the three parts of XSL?
Ans. There are a total of 3 parts for XSL:
- XSLT – It is required for the transformation of the document
- XPath – It is required for XML document navigation
- XSL-FO – It is required for XML document formatting
Q12. Define XML Signature?
Ans. XML signature is also known as a digital signature that is W3C recommended. There are two types of signature i.e. detached signature when the document has it outside and enveloping signature when it’s placed inside.
Q13. What are the types of XML Parsers?
Ans. The XML parsers are of two types i.e. Non-Validating and Validating. If it’s a validating parser, it will validate XML against DTD and if its non-validating, it will not validate XML against DTD.
Q14. Define XLink and XPointer?
Ans. In XML files, hyperlinks can be created using XLink. To point the hyperlinks to more specific points, XPointer is used.
Q15. What do you mean by nested elements in XML?
Ans. When root elements nest one or two elements, its called nested elements. Through nesting, an XML document can be kept in order and makes it easier to understand.
Q16. Is there any way that HTML can be replaced with XML?
Ans. None of either language can replace each other but yes XML is a good alternative to HTML. XML just have some extraordinary features such as defining of new elements and creating markups for data storage and processing.
Q17. Is it possible to use graphics in XML?
Ans. There is a way to include graphics i.e. using XLink and XPointer. There are several graphics formats that it supports such as GIF, JPG, TIFF, PNG, CGM, EPS, and SVG.
Q18. Define SGML?
Ans. SGML, a generalized markup language, is both powerful and large. It can be used for defining the structural descriptions of the different electronic document.
Q19. Define XSL?
Ans. To express style sheets in XML, XSL is used. It is a language that helps you with XML document display.
Q20. Define CDATA?
Ans. CDATA is also known as character data that is unparsed or non-validated. To validate, it can be parsed using XML parser.
The illegal Character in XML are < and >
A CDATA begins with <![CDATA[” and ends with “]]>”.
These are some of the basics of XML that are crucial for a developer to know. For those who are beginners and haven’t tried implementation much must read through all these questions before appearing for XML interview questions.