Tuning performance of MySQL Server Database


Posted On: Feb 22, 2018

Tuning performance of MySQL Server Database


MySQL can be a rock solid, lighting quickly database server which has been designed for two factors pace and efficiency. It could be the Ferrari of databases: Lightweight, quickly and Built for the higher pace tracks! I nonetheless hear an awful lot of stories from owners whose databases are running too slow. In my experience, the three principal places to seem for issues are:

  1. Faulty Database Design
  2. Lousy Queries
  3. Server factors

Faulty Database Design

Correct database design might be the single most essential factor for the ensuring efficiency and maintainability with the database. Right here is what you have to answer when designing a desk: Can I decrease the size of knowledge that every row will have? Right here is what you are able to do:

  1. Use unsigned numeric values when the application is not going to save negative numbers. Like the quantity ordered of an item in an e-commerce application is never going to become -$125.
  2. Use Variable length values as an alternative to fixed length worth i.e. utilized varchar in place of char.
  3. Tend not to use unnecessarily big field sizes. For most e-commerce application unsigned small INT is extra than sufficient to retailer inventory count. A field described as unsigned small INT can keep a max benefit of 65535.
  4. Don't ignore normalization: it helps prevent unnecessary repetition of info. The part B of that is, don't overuse normalization. If the desk is not going to grow in size substantially, there's no point in normalization. For instance, if the user desk has just 20 rows (i.e. 20 employees in an organization), all attempts of normalization are wasted.
  5. Use Keys. Don't decide keys by The customer id has to become indexed from the order desk. If the order desk is becoming searched 90% of your times by order date, it makes much more sense to index order date.

Remember, how a desk will probably be employed must determine how it truly is designed. Spending time right here will save years of frustration.

Lousy Queries

It sounds too excellent to become true but you won't believe the number of developers out there who totally suck at writing queries. You will discover two kinds of undesirable queries:

  • Unnecessary Queries: These are the queries that shouldn't have been made inside the initial place. The only method to avoid it can be asking, Do I actually need to have this info?
  • Inefficient Queries: These are the queries that usually do not use the underlying disk structure or MySQL functions inside the correct way.

Right here is actually a starting point to begin looking at issue areas:

  1. Unnecessary utilization of Select * statements when the entire processing is becoming carried out on a single column. The far more info is fetched from the server the extra work MySQL has to do and much more bandwidth it takes.
  2. Employing sub-query as an alternative to a join. On a correctly designed database, joins are incredibly rapidly. Making use of sub-queries just shows a lack of knowledge.
  3. Improper use of Keys. It can be especially valid for range checks. Remember to use the Explain statement to check the utilization of keys and then use the use crucial statement in your where clauses to force critical utilization.

Server Factors

Everything carried out correctly, there nonetheless may well be some server factors that may possibly be causing the technique to become slow. These are:

  1. Hardware associated
  2. Server configuration associated

Right here is what you are able to do about the hardware:

  1. The extra RAM is the method the much better it can be. MySQL often fetches info from the RAM and a lot more the RAM is on the technique, the much better it can be.
  2. Purchase the fastest achievable RAM! A slower RAM is just irony.
  3. As soon as you will be settled with the RAM size and velocity, seem for processing velocity. MySQL can use multiple processors.

As soon as you might be satisfied with the hardware, you will find a set of variables in my.cnf that you should seem at:

  1. key_buffer_size: This describes the memory accessible to save the index keys. The default is 8 MB but you may set it to 25% with the RAM.
  2. query_cache_size: This worth is by default ..! if you might have a great deal of repeating queries like in reporting applications and so on, make certain you set this benefit largely.
  3. table_open_cache: This determines the number of desk descriptors that MySQL will maintain inside the cache. The default worth is 64. But, if you've 100 users accessing a disk concurrently then this worth require to at-least be 100. You also need to take into considerations joins and so on.


Mysql is one the most popular open source database. It is named over the name of co-founder Michael Widenius's daughter, MY and SQL the abbreviation for Structured Query Language. Read Best MYSQL Interview Questions If you are preparing for MYSQL interview and looking for some good questions.

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