UFT, acronymed as Unified Functional Testing is just a tool that is used for functional and regression testing which uses VBScript as its scripting language which came into existence in the year 2001 and since then it is widely used as a testing tool all over the globe. Efficient and effective testing are the main objectives of UFT or for the matter any other testing tool, so the fundamentals of testing should be solid for using this tool. It predominantly relies on the programming skills to design, develop and maintain test. Knowing all the features of the tool and VB script are not enough, the most important skill that a tester requires is the ability of logic building. UFT was re-released in March 2018 as is available as a proprietary software which runs on Microsoft Windows. In interviews nowadays the questions asked are about writing a script on paper or coding on a UFT installed the machine. Below are some other important UFT interview questions that might be helpful:
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UFT Interview questions
|These models are client-side models||These models are server-based|
|Communication with the services in this model is complex||This model is easy to use to communicate with ODATA services|
|It can manage small data sets available on the client-side.||Here the datasets are available on the server-side|
|It supports two-way binding||It supports one-way binding|
|Its syntax is sap.ui.model.json.JSONModel. () ;||Its syntax is Sap.ui.model.odata. ODataModel () ;|
Yes, below mentioned are some of the common service metadata annotations. This hour common services and front-end developer must definitely know them in order to understand the actual service in integration.
- -edm: Entity container
- -edm: Entity Set
- -edm: Entity Type
- -edm: Property
- -edm: Navigation Property
- -edm: Association Set
The steps for exiting for loop is as follows :
For count= 1 to 3
If isnumeric(TempNum) Then
LenghtNum = LengthNum & TempNum
GetStrLenNumber = LengthNum
Accessibility checkpoint is a particular type of checkpoint in UFT which is used to verify whether the test has complied with the World Wide Web (W3) Consortium or not. It also shows the guidelines to be followed for web-based technologies and information systems.
There are three types of errors to be handled while working with UFT :
- Runtime error
- Logical error
- Syntax error
Typically, the test fails if even one of the properties of the on-screen object does not match the recorded object properly.
UFT does not give an error if the property values do not match in Smart Identification. In Smart identification, the script does not fail if a property value does not match the script but it proceeds ahead to the next property. It can be enabled in Object identification dialogue box.
In UFT, any step which is not mandatory to be executed is termed as an optional step. Optional steps are only performed when the corresponding GUI is present.
The optional step can be added by the following steps :
- User can right-click a step and choose it as an optional step (keyword view)
- User can add an optional step at the beginning of the VBScript (Expert view)
There are several limitations to UFT. Some of them are :
- If the tests involved in UFT is big, it results in the consumption of a huge amount of memory and thus hinders the speed of the system and slows down the process.
- UFT stores all of its file in HTML. Thus it becomes difficult to retrieve these kinds of files sometimes because HTML files are too big.
These are the types of Test Automation Frameworks :
<li>Linear scripting :</li>
This is the easiest type of test automation framework in which each step is recorded by the tester manually and then all the test steps are recorded and played accordingly
<li>Test library architecture framework : </li>
In this framework, tests are done by linear scripting initially and then common tasks are grouped which are popularly called functions and then these functions are called by drivers to create various test cases.
<li>Data-driven testing framework :</li>
In this testing framework, the logic of the test case is being used by the testers. Here, the test data is kept intact and then the whole process is carried on. It promotes the security of data.
<li>Keyword-driven testing framework :</li>
The keyword-driven testing framework basically depends on the keywords and is independent of the automation tool used. This type of framework generally runs on keywords, component function and application map.
UFT process has 6 main phases:
- Creating a test plan: This is the planning phase in which all the steps, test data, and expected test results are identified for the automated test. The environment and the system configurations are also identified that are required to create and run your UFT tests.
- Recording sessions on the applications: The test steps are executed one by one on the AUT, and the UFT will automatically record the corresponding VB script statements for all the steps performed in this phase.
- Enhancing the test: Checkpoints, output values, parameterization, programming logic like if… else loop is inserted in this phase to enhance the logic of the test script.
- Replay and debug: The script is replayed after the enhancements to check whether it's working properly and then debug if necessary.
- Running the test: The actual execution of the test script is done in this phase.
- Analyzing the results of the test: The test results are analyzed after the test is complete, the results are analyzed in the generated Test Fusion report.
- Reporting defects: After the test, all the defects that are identified are reported. By using Quality Center, the defects can be automatically raised for a failed test in UFT.
Keyword view is basically a view based on icons. The main function of the keyword view is to show test steps clearly in a tabular form. Its main advantage is its ability to generate documentation for these steps.
It is very different from the Expert view as the expert view gives corresponding VBScript for every step in the test performed.
UFT identifies objects through either object repository or descriptive programming. These are the following scenarios in which descriptive programming can be used:
a) Used to remove duplicate objects. In different screens or windows of the application the same objects exist. If OR is used in this case you have to store the same object under different object hierarchy in OR. Descriptive programming is used to deal with these situations.
b) To store objects in OR(Object repository) is not appropriate in certain situations. For example, if you want to print 1000 links on the page, you should not store all the links in the object repository, you should instead use descriptive programming.
|Bitmap checkpoint||Image checkpoint|
|Bitmap checkpoint can be defined as the process of checking only a part of a particular image.||Image checkpoint can be defined as the process of checking the whole image at a time.|
|Image checkpoint checks the properties of application or image as a bitmap||It is used to check the properties of a Web image.|
|The bitmap can only be used in a defined area.||Image checkpoint can only be used on the whole image and not on any definite part.|
|Functions can be defined as a set of VBScript programming concept and do not have their own object repository||Actions consist of their own object repository. Also, actions have their own data table too|
|It helps in continuous and regressive use of code||Actions help in increasing the number of times any code is used.|
|Functions do not contribute to making the tests more modular.||They help in increasing the modularity of the test.|
UFT Automation object model deals with the automation of UFT itself. UFT Automation object model represents almost all of the configuration and functionality of UFT. All the dialogue boxes in UFT consist of an Automation object model which is used to set and retrieve using the corresponding Automation model.
Object Spy is a feature in Unified Functional testing in which both test properties and run-time properties and methods can be viewed. Syntax of the selected method is also given by object spy. Object spy shows the complete hierarchy of the object which has been selected by the user. It is basically a utility to add objects which can be accessed from the toolbar and is used to add objects to the object repository.
Typically, to enable UFT to perform actions on the object, the object and its properties must be recorded in the Object Repository.
Using Descriptive programming the object and its property values are not stored in the object repository but they are mentioned in the property value pair directly in the script.
The idea of descriptive programming is to help recognize dynamic objects and not to bypass the object repository.
When UFT creates an object in the repository, it gives it a name to it to uniquely identify it from other objects in the application, this name is known as the logical name of the object. UFT uses this name to map the objects named in the script with its corresponding description in the object repository. Ex: Browser(“Browser”).Page(“UFT”) here UFT is the logical name of the object.
There are objects in the application that behave like standard objects but are not recognized by UFT, these objects are Virtual objects, these objects can be mapped to the standard classes, such as a button or a checkbox. The user’s actions are on virtual objects are recorded by UFT during the run session. The virtual objects are shown as standard class objects in the test results.
A Virtual object can be defined for an area of the bitmap, which includes those coordinates and maps it to the button class to enable UFT to click at the required coordinate during a run session.
There are 3 types of recording modes in UTF:
- Normal Recording mode or contextual recording mode
- Low-level recording mode
- Analog recording mode
Normal or contextual recording mode: Normal recording mode is the basic or default recording mode that is used in UFT, it takes full advantage of UFT’s test object model. It can recognize the objects regardless of their position on-screen. This is used for most of the automation activities and is the most preferred recording mode.
Low-level recording mode: It can record the objects that are not identified by the normal recording mode of UFT. It records with the help of x,y coordinates of the user's mouse operations. It helps in hashmap testing.
Analog recording mode: This mode records the movement of the mouse and keyboard that a user performs in relation to the screen/application window. This mode helps in drawing pictures, recording a signature and drag and drop operation.
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